双语《中国交通运输发展》白皮书 4

2021-03-11 英语六级

运输工具技术水平不断提高。截至2015年年底,铁路主要干线全部实现内燃、电力机车牵引,客货运输车辆品种和结构均实现升级换代。民用汽车数量达到17228万辆,公路客货营运车辆总数达1473万辆,货运车辆平均吨位数由6.3吨增加至7.5吨,专用货车(含甩挂运输车辆)占比由5.1%提高至27.2%,营运客车高档化、舒适化和货运车辆大型化、专业化程度不断提高。水上运输船舶达16.6万艘,海运船队运力总规模达1.6亿吨,内河货运船舶平均吨位超过800吨,高等级航道通航水域船型标准化率达到50%,船舶大型化、专业化和标准化发展趋势明显。民航拥有运输飞机在册架数2650架,通用航空企业拥有在册航空器1904架。邮政业拥有各类汽车24.4万辆、国内快递专用货机71架。

Means of transport and technology have been improved. By the end of 2015, all railway trunk lines had realized diesel and electric locomotive traction; types and structures of passenger and freight transport vehicles had been upgraded and updated. Civil automobiles numbered 172.28 million; highway passenger and freight transport vehicles in operation totaled 14.73 million; the average tonnage of freight transport vehicles increased from 6.3 to 7.5 tons; the proportion of special-use freight vehicles (including trailers) rose from 5.1 percent to 27.2 percent; passenger transport vehicles in operation have become advanced and comfortable, while freight transport vehicles have become larger and have been specified for various uses. Water transport vessels numbered 166,000; ocean cargo fleet had a total capacity of 160 million tons; inland waterway freight transport vessels had an average tonnage of more than 800 tons; the rate of standard ship types operating in navigable waters of high-grade waterways reached 50 percent; transport vessels have been developed towards large-size, specialized-use and standard types. Civil aviation had 2,650 registered planes, while general aviation had 1,904. Postal services had 244,000 transport vehicles and 71 cargo planes for domestic express delivery.

初步建立高效的安全监管和海上应急救助体系。建立和完善国家海上搜救和重大海上溢油应急处置部际联席会议制度,海上搜救打捞力量持续增强,搜救志愿者队伍不断扩大。初步构建了广泛覆盖、反应迅速、立体高效的水上交通安全监管和海上应急保障体系。

An efficient safety regulation and maritime emergency aid system has been established. China has established and improved the inter-ministerial joint conference system for maritime search and rescue, and major marine oil spill emergency disposal. It has also improved its maritime search and rescue efforts and increased the number of volunteers. Overall, China has preliminarily built an extensive, prompt and efficient system of waterway transport safety regulation and maritime emergency support.

(三)科技创新和应用

Technology Innovation and Application

基础设施建设技术世界领先。高速铁路、高寒铁路、高原铁路、重载铁路技术迈入世界先进行列,高速铁路成为“中国制造”和“走出去”的`新名片。高原冻土、膨胀土、沙漠等特殊地质的铁路、公路建设技术克服世界级难题,青藏公路、青藏铁路先后建成通车运营。陆续建成一批世界级特大桥隧,特大桥隧建造技术达到世界先进水平。离岸深水港建设关键技术、巨型河口航道整治技术、长河段航道系统治理技术以及大型机场工程建设技术世界领先,实施港珠澳大桥、洋山港集装箱码头、长江口深水航道治理等系列重大工程。

China leads the world in infrastructure construction. China’s technologies for high-speed, alpine, plateau and heavy-haul railways have reached the world’s advanced level, while high-speed railways have become a symbol of made-in-China and going-global products. Railway and highway construction technologies have overcome world-level geological challenges such as plateau permafrost, and expansive soil and desert. The construction of the Qinghai-Tibet Highway and Qinghai-Tibet Railway has been completed and they have been opened to traffic. A number of world-class large bridges and tunnels have been built with globally advanced construction technologies. China’s key construction technologies for offshore deep-water ports, improved technologies for large estuary waterways and long waterways, and construction technologies for large-scale airports are leading the world. The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, Yangshan Port Container Terminal, Yangtze Estuary Deepwater Channel Improvement Project, and other major construction projects have been carried out.

装备制造技术快速进步。以高速列车、大功率机车为代表的一批具有自主知识产权的高性能铁路装备技术达到世界先进水平,部分达到世界领先水平。新能源道路运输装备初步实现产业化。自主研制的支线客机、通用飞机、直升机已交付使用,C919大型客机总装下线,中国成为世界上为数不多的能够自主研制大飞机的国家。大型专业化码头装卸设备制造、海工机械特种船舶、集装箱成套设备制造技术领先世界,300米饱和潜水取得创新性突破。邮政光学字符识别(OCR)、视频补码、码址校验等分拣技术处于世界领先水平。

Equipment manufacturing has made rapid progress. High-performance railway equipment technologies with proprietary intellectual property rights, represented by high-speed railways and high-power locomotives, have reached the advanced world level, with some of them leading the world. New-energy road transport equipment has realized preliminary industrialization. Feeder liners, general aviation aircraft and helicopters independently developed by China have been put into use, and the C919 airliner has rolled off the assembly line, making China one of the few countries capable of developing large airliners independently. China’s manufacturing technologies for large, specialized equipment for terminal loading and unloading, special marine engineering machinery vessels and complete sets of container transport equipment are world-leaders, while its 300-m saturation diving technology has achieved a breakthrough. Sorting technologies in postal services, including optical character recognition (OCR), video complement and address check via bar code have reached the world’s top level.

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