高考英语语法专题讲练:特殊句式

2021-02-06 高考英语

高考英语语法专题讲练九:特殊句式

  特殊句式(强调、替代、省略和倒装)

  【考点分析】

  强调句

  1.强调句型用于强调陈述句;

  2.强调句型用于强调一般疑问句;

  3.强调句型用于强调特殊疑问句;

  4.强调句型用于强调not…until…句型;

  5.强调句型与状语从句、定语从句、祈使句的混合考查。

  替代

  1.do/does/did替代动词;

  2.so和not分别代替肯定和否定的从句.

  省略

  1.主语的省略;

  2.谓语或谓语的一部分的省略;

  3.宾语的省略;

  4.不定式的省略;

  5.宾语从句和状语从句中的省略;

  6.虚拟条件句中if的省略。

  倒装句

  1.部分倒装;

  2.完全倒装

  3.常考的几个重要句型:

  So +be/情态/助动词+主语

  Neither+be/情态/助动词+主语

  So +adj/adv …+that …

  Neither …, nor …

  Not only …, but also …

  Not until …

  【知识点归纳】

  为了表达说话人强烈的感情色彩或达到语法结构的需要,常采用强调。应用中,强调常通过强调结构、语法性倒装、修辞性倒装等来体现。作为修辞手段,省略和替代能使语句简练、紧凑,但往往给学生的理解和选择造成一定的障碍。在近几年的高考题中省略和替代现象时有出现,而且出错率较高,原因是因为大多数考生对省略和替代的规律不明了。请注意下面的说明。

  I.强调句

  1.It is (was) +被强调部分+that(who)…

  为了强调句子的某一成分(通常是主语、宾语、或状语),常用强调结构:

  It is (was) +被强调部分+that(who)…

  表示强调的it在这种结构的句子中作主句的主语。

  原始句:Last night I saw a film in the Youth Palace.

  强调主语:It was I that (or: who) saw a film in the Youth Palace last night.

  强调宾语:It was a fiml that I saw in the Youth Palace last night.

  强调地点状语:It was in the Youth Palace that I saw a film last night.

  强调时间状语:It was last night that I saw a film in the Youth Palace.

  一般讲,原句的谓语动词如果是现在或将来各种时态,用It is…that (who)…;如果原句谓语动词是过去各种时态,则用It was… that(who)…。

  另外,还有下面几点需要特别注意:

  ①在强调主语时,that后的谓语动词要与被强调者保持人称和数的一致

  It is I who am a teacher.

  ②即使被强调的主语是复数,主句中的`谓语动词也用单数

  It is they who often help me with my lessons.

  ③在强调时间、地点、原因、或方式状语时,不要用when,where,why 或 how ,而用that

  It was because her mother was ill that she didn't go with us.

  ④在强调not … until 结构中由 until 短语(或从句)表示的时间状语时,要用固定的强调句型

  It is(was) not until ...that...。that 从句中的谓语动词用肯定式。

  My father didn't come home until 12 o'clock last night.

  It was not until 12 o'clock last night that my father came home.

  ⑤在强调一般疑问句中的某一成分时,主句要用一般疑问句的语序:即把is/ was提到it前面。

  Did this happen in Beijing?

  Was it in Beijing that this happened?

  ⑥特殊疑问句中只有疑问词可以强调,其强调结构是“被强调部分(通常是疑问代词或疑问副词)+ is/was + it + that/ who + 其它部分? "

  Where were you born?

  Where was it that you were born?

  ⑦not …until…句型的强调句[来源:ZXXK]

  句型为:It is/ was not until + 被强调部分 + that + 其它部分

  原始句:He didn’t go to bed until/ till his wife came back.

  强调句:It was not until his wife came back that he went to bed.

  注意:此句型只用until,不用till。但如果不是强调句型,till, until可通用;因为句型中It is/ was not … 已经是否定句了,that后面的从句要用肯定句,切勿再用否定句了。

  2.谓语动词的强调

  It is/ was … that … 结构不能强调谓语,如果需要强调谓语时,用助动词do/ does或did。

  Do sit down. 务必请坐。

  He did write to you last week. 上周他确实给你写了信。

  Do be careful when you cross the street. 过马路时,务必(千万)要小心啊!

  注意:此种强调只用do/does和did ,没有别的形式;过去时用did,后面的谓语动词用原形。

  II替代

  1.do/does/did替代动词

  If that's the case then 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 people would weigh as much as the whole Earth

  does.(= weighs)

  Difficulties strengthen the mind, as labour does(= strengthen) the body.劳动锻炼身体,困难锻炼意志。

  A feather falls slower than a stone only because the air holds the feather back more than it does the stone.(替代)

  2.so和not分别代替肯定和否定的从句(常用动词:think,believe,suppose,imagine,expect,guess,be afraid,fear,hope.etc.)

  —Is he coming?

  —I suppose so./So I suppose.

  否定:I suppose not.

  III.省略句

  省略在英语运用中,尤其是在交际对话中普遍存在,因为它可以避免重复,突出关键词语,能做到言简意赅,并使上下文紧密连接。在历年的高考题中也屡见不鲜。省略有词法上的省略,也有句法上的省略。

  (一)词法上的省略

  1.名词所有格后修饰的名词在以下情况可以省略

  ①如果名词所有格修饰的名词在前文已出现,则可以省略。

  These are John's books and those are Mary's (books). 这些是约翰的书,那些是玛丽的书。

  ②名词所有格后修饰的名词如果是指商店、住宅等地点时,这些名词也常常省略。

  at the doctor's 在诊所 at Mr. Green's 在格林先生家

  to my uncle's 到我叔叔家 at the barber's 在理发店

  2.冠词的省略

  ①为了避免重复

  The lightning flashed and thunder crashed. 电闪雷鸣。(thunder前省略了定冠词the)

  ②在副词的最高级前面的定冠词常可以省略。

  She sings best in the class. 她在班上唱歌唱得最好。

  ③在某些独立主格结构中。

  Our teacher came in, book in hand. (=Our teacher came in, with a book in his hand.)

  我们的老师手里拿着一本书进来了。

  ④在as引导的让步状语从句中,当作表语的单数名词提前时,不定冠词要省略。

  Child as he is, he knows a lot. 虽然他还是一个孩子,却懂得很多。

  3.介词的省略

  ①both 后常跟of短语,其后可以接名词复数形式,也可以接代词宾格复数形式。接复数名词时,介词of可以省略,但接代词宾格时,of不能省略。

  Both (of) the films were interesting. 这两部电影都很有趣。

  She invited both of us to her birthday party. 她邀请我们俩去参加她的生日派对。

  ②在现在完成时表持续和重复的句型中,一段时间前的介词for可以省略。

  These shoes are worn out. They have lasted (for) a long time.

  这双鞋穿破了,已经穿了很长一段时间了。

  ③和一些动词搭配构成的短语中的介词,consider... (as)..., prevent / stop... (from)doing...,

  have trouble / difficulty... (in) doing...,spend... (in / on) doing... 等中的介词可以省略。

  Trees can prevent the earth (from) being washed away. 树能阻止泥土被冲走。

  Can you stop him (from) going swimming in the river? 你能阻止他下河洗澡吗?

  I have some difficulty (in) answering the question. 回答这个问题我有点困难。

  4.动词不定式中的省略

  ①有些动词,believe, find, think, feel, consider, imagine, prove等后作宾补的结构。

  to be + n. / adj. 中的to be可以省略。

  I consider him (to be) lazy. 我认为他懒。

  His mother found him (to be) a clever boy.他母亲发觉他是一个很聪明的孩子。

  ②感官动词see, hear, feel, watch, notice 等以及使役动词let, make, have后作宾补的动词不定式。

  中的不定式符号to要省略,但变为被动结构时,to必须保留。

  They made the boy go to bed early.他们强迫这个男孩早睡。

  The boy was made to go to bed early. 这个男孩被迫早睡。

  注:help后作宾补的动词不定式中的to可以省略也可以保留。

  ③在can not but, can not choose but, can not help but之后的动词不定式一般不带to;but之前有实

  义动词do的某个形式do, does, did, done 时,也不带to, 否则要带to。

  We have nothing to do now but wait. 我们现在除了等没有别的事可做。

  I can not but admire his courage. 我不能不钦佩他的勇敢。

  He has no choice but to accept the fact. 除了接受这个事实他别无选择。

  ④在并列结构中为了避免重复。

  I'm really puzzled what to think or say. 我真不知道该怎么想,怎么说才好。

  但两个不定式有对照或对比的意义时,则后一个to不能省略。

  I came not to scold but to praise you. 我来不是责备你,而是赞美你。

  ⑤在why, why not 引导的特殊问句中后跟省略to的动词不定式。

  Why talk so much about it? 为什么大谈这个事呢?

  Why not try it again? 为什么不再试一试呢?

  ⑥动词不定式中动词原形部分是否省略,主要看句子前面是否已出现过同样的动词。如果句子前面出现过同样的动词,为了避免重复,句子后面的不定式常省略动词原形,而保留不定式符号to。

  They may go if they wish to(go). 如果他们想去,他们就可以去。

  Don't go till I tell you to.直到我告诉你去,你才可以去。

  在一些动词afford, agree, expect, forget, mean, pretend, remember, want, refuse, hope, wish, would like (love), try等后跟动词不定式作宾语,不定式中的to可以承前(后)省略。

  —Will you go to the cinema with me? 你愿和我一起去看电影吗?

  —Well, I'd like to (go with you). 我愿意。

  I would do it for you, but I don't know how to (do it for you).

  我想为你做这事,但我又不知如何做。

  在某些形容词,afraid, glad, willing, happy, eager等后承前省略动词原形,只保留不定式符号to。

  —Will you join us in the game? 你愿和我们一起做这个游戏吗?

  —Sure, I'll be glad to(join you in the game). 当然,我愿意。

  有些动词,tell, ask, allow, expect, force, invite, permit, persuade, order, warn, wish, would like,

  forbid等后跟动词不定式作宾语补足语、主语补足语时,不定式承前省略动词原形, 保留动词不定式符号to。

  He didn't come, though we had invited him to (come). 尽管我们邀请他来,他却没来。

  注:承前省略的动词不定式如果有助动词have或be,则要保留be或have。

  —Are you a teacher? 你是老师吗? --No, but I used to be (a teacher). 不,我以前是。


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