高考英语短文改错技巧

2021-02-16 高考英语

  为了提高做短文改错题的能力,除了要加强基础知识的积累、提高语篇的整体理解能力之外,还应该对其错项设置的基本情况有所了解,以便做到目标明确,有的放矢,从而提高解题的正确率。本文拟从语法和逻辑的角度,用口诀的形式,向同学们介绍高考英语短文改错中最常见的几类错误。

  短文改错口诀:

  动词形,名词数;

  注意形和副;

  非谓动词细辨别;

  习惯用法要记住;

  句子成分多分析;

  逻辑错误须关注。

  一、动词形

  主要包括两类错误:动词的时态和语态错误,以及主、谓不一致的错误。例如:

  My favourite sport is football. I was member of our school football team. (is)

  Now my picture and prize is hanging in the library. (are)

  上述两例分别属于时态错误和主、谓不一致错误。找出此类错误的关键是树立牢固的时态概念,注意短文内容发生或存在的时间,保持时间概念的一致性。

  二、名词数

  指名词单、复数形式的用法错误。常表现为将名词复数写成单数。例如:

  …so that I’ll get good marks in all my subject. (subjects)

  三、 区分形和副

  及区分形容词和副词在句子中的作用和具体用法。这也是高考短文改错的常考点。例如:

  I’m sure we’ll have a wonderfully time together. (wonderful)

  Unfortunate, there are too many people in my family. (Unfortunately)

  需要注意的是,形容词多用来做定、表、补语等,而副词只能在句子中作状语,修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子。第一例中的wonderful作定语修饰time,第二句的Unfortunately作状语修饰整个句子。

  四、非谓动词细辨别

  这是考查最多的错误形式之一。主要有分词和动名词类错误,也包括不定式类错误。例如:

  …in my spare time, but now I am interesting in football. (interested)

  Play football not only makes us grow up tall and strong but also … (playing)

  My parents love me… and will do all they can ∧ make sure… (to)

  上述二、三例分别是动名词作主语,和不定式作目的状语。一般的,现在分词有主动态和进行时的'含义,而过去分词具有被动态和完成时的含义,不定式有将来时态的含义。

  五、习惯用法要记住

  主要考查习惯搭配方面的基础知识。这也是历年高考的常考点,其错误表现形式主要有三种:多词、少词和搭配错误。例如:

  It was very kind for them to meet me at the railway station and… (of)

  We must keep in mind that we play for the team instead ∧ ourselves. (of)

  六、句子成分多分析

  不同的句子成分要用不同的词类;不同的语景要选择不同的词语。这些都有待我们对句子结构和句子成分作细致的分析,才能找出用词不当的错误。例如:

  They ∧eager to know everything about China and… (were)

  I live in Beijing, where is the capital of China. (which)

  第一例漏掉了谓语动词were,这是受寒于习惯的影响而导致的错误;第二例则是词类与它在句子中的成分不相符,where是副词,不能作主语。

  七、逻辑错误须关注

  与句子的上、下文不一致,甚至相矛盾,属于逻辑性错误。如称谓上的张冠李戴,人名、地名、时间、方位等方面的错误,常是这类错误的考查对象。例如:

  The Smiths did his best to make me feel at home. (their)

  First, let me tell you something more about myself. (去掉more)

  … no way of setting the matter except by selling the set.Now someone at home reads instead. (everyone)

  上述第一例中的主语是Smiths(史密斯夫妇俩),因此后面的his不合逻辑。第二例中的more在这儿表“再”的意思,才开始告诉别人,怎么能说“再告诉你一些事”?第三例讲的是为了解决看电视时的争端,“我们”把电视机卖了;晚上没电视看了,所以与从前一样,大家又都读书了,所以该用 everyone。

  除了上述错误类型外,常考的错误形式还有:连词but, and, or和so的用法错误(可以归类为逻辑错误),以及冠词的用法错误等。例如:

  She was smiling but nodding at me. (and)

  It looks as if my parents treat me as a visitor and a guest. (or)

  We may be one family and live under a same roof. (the)

  下面是2002年全国高考试题中的短文改错题。这道题较全面地反映了本文的口诀。现在请你试着做一做,然后参阅题后的答案与简析。

  Last week my parents and I took a two-day trip to Emei

  Mountain in Sichuan. As everyone knows,it’s famous 76. _____

  Mountain with all kinds of plants and animals. The weather 77. _____

  Was fine. It was about noon we arrived at the foot of 78. _____

  the mountain,the three of them were very excited. As we 79. _____

  climbed the mountain,we ed monkeys,visiting temples 80. _____

  and told stories. On the way up I was busy taking picture 81._____

  since the scenery was so beautiful. The time passes quickly. 82. _____

  Evening came down. We spent the night in a hotel at the top 83. _____

  of the mountain. The food was expensive and the service was 84. _____

  good. I was so tired that I fell asleep at the moment my 85. _____

  head touched the pillow.

  答案与简析:

  76. famous前加上a.(名词数)

  77. 正确

  78. we前面加when,引导一个时间状语从句。(句子成分多分析)

  79. them→us (逻辑错误须关注)

  80. visiting→visited(非谓动词细辨别)

  81. picture→pictures(名词数)

  82. passes→passed(动词形)

  83. 去掉down(习惯用法要记住)

  84. and→but(but,and,or和so)

  85. 去掉at(句子成分多分析 / 习惯用法要记住)

  改错要想拿高分

  语法口诀要记牢

  (一)见到谓语找主语,主谓一致找状语

  见到名词想多数,可不可数要记牢

  见到平行看结构,形式功能要对称

  见到代词找指代,指代通常不合理

  带宾语必带to,不带宾语不带 to

  小小of常抓的点,of前名词adj最高级

  比较级不修饰比较级,最高级不修饰最高级

  (二)谓与非谓经常混

  谓语句中就一个

  其余动词非谓语

  常见形式有三种

  v-ing ,v-ed和to do

  主谓通常v-ing

  动宾通常v-ed

  现在分词表主动

  过去分词表被动

  目的要用不定式

  by前有过去分词相拥

  by后有动名词后抱

  介词后跟动名词

  时态基点要搞清

  现在还是过去时

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